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Bacteria in Urine


The kidneys perform the important function of filtering the blood and this process leads to the formation of the waste product, i.e. urine. The important minerals and nutrients are retained by the kidneys in the blood, and the unwanted, waste materials are filtered out. Such water soluble waste then passes from the kidneys via the narrow pipes called ureters and get collected in the bladder in the form of urine. The urine is then eliminated from the body via a tube known as urethra.

Urine generally tends to have a sterile nature. However, bacteria may occasionally pass onto different areas of the urinary tract. This may result in multiplication of bacteria. When the growth of bacteria is found in a sample of urine, then the affected individual is diagnosed with a condition called bacteriuria. It is generally referred to as urinary tract infection, when more than 100,000 pathogenic bacteria per milliliter of urine, is detected in the sample of urine. It is important that such bacteria belong to a single species.

Bacteria in Urine – Test


Bacteria in Urine – Test

When a urine sample is detected with different types or species of bacteria, then it is possible that the sample is probably contaminated. In such a scenario, a new sample of urine would be needed for a fresh diagnosis to detect the presence of bacteria in urine.

When infected by bacteria in urine, the affected patients usually tend to visit a doctor with complaints of symptoms such as painful urination or the presence of burning sensations during urination. The doctor may then ask for a test of the urine that involves a urinalysis as well as a microbial culture of the sample of urine. The results obtained from the above tests aid in confirmation of bacteria in urine and also provide other necessary information.

Bacteria in urine may cause some symptoms or it may be asymptomatic. An individual who is affected by the presence of an excessive number of bacteria in the urinary tract but does not experience any symptoms is said to be affected by the asymptomatic form of bacteria in urine. This type of bacterial infection in urine is not serious in nature. However, any individual who has undergone a kidney transplant, or is diabetic; or if the said individual is a pregnant women, then that person needs to seek medical attention even for asymptomatic cases of bacteria in urine. Untreated cases of urinary tract infection and bacteria in urine can result in serious health complications.

Symptoms of bacteria in urine

  • Increased pressure during urination
  • Sensations of pain and burning during urination
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Putrid smelling urine
  • Bloody urine

Causes of bacteria in urine

Urine does not contain considerable number of microorganisms. In certain cases, bacteria may enter the urinary system and make its presence felt in the form of bacteria in urine and other visible symptoms. The different kinds of bacteria that can infect the urinary system and be detected in a urine sample are Enterococcus faecalis, Chlamydia, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Klebsiella pneumoniae

A few of the above mentioned bacteria are perennially present in the gastrointestinal tract and may pass to the urethra from the bowel. Hence, individuals who do not maintain good personal hygiene are at an increased vulnerability to developing bacteria in urine.

Women are generally more vulnerable to infections of the bladder as compared to men. This is because women have shorter urethral duct. Additionally, the urethral tube is really close to the vagina and also the anus. When women become pregnant there is a change in the way the urinary tract is positioned, which increases the risk to development of bacteria in urine. Hence, it is advisable for pregnant women to regularly visit their physicians and get a urinalysis as well as a urine culture done, so as to check for bacteria in urine.

Any infection of the urinary tract in children may result in the development of a medical condition known as vesicoureteral reflux which causes the urine to flow back to the ureters from the bladder. This may lead to the growth of bacteria in urine

Inflammation or enlargement of the prostate is generally the most likely cause of bladder infections in men, leading to bacteria in urine. Infections of the urinary tract is also possible when there is any blockage of the urine flow as a result of kidney stones, or when there in incomplete elimination of urine from the bladder.

Withholding urine for prolonged periods can also increase the risk to bacterial infections in urine. Additionally, prolonged use of bladder catheters increase the vulnerability to developing bacteria in urine

Treatment of bacteria in urine

  • Asymptomatic cases of bacteria in urine generally do not need any treatment, except for pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems. Such people need to consult a doctor for appropriate treatment.
  • Bacterial infections of the kidneys may be treated via antibiotics. Kidney stones and other diseases of the kidney may be treated by the doctor as per the individual cases and surgery may be one of the options
  • Infections of the urinary tract may be treated with different antibiotics.

Bacterial Infections in the Urine

Bacteria in Urine – Test

Bacteria are subjectively quantified in urine as: few, moderate and many. They can be detected in unstained urine sediments when in sufficient quantity.

Identification: Rod-shaped bacteria and chains of cocci are often readily identifiable. The top panel of the image at right show E.coli bacilli from a case of cystitis in a dog. However, small amorphous crystals, cellular debris, and small fat droplets can either mask or mimic cocci (see below for more information). If there is any doubt about the presence of bacteria, a Gram-stained smear of urine sediment (middle panel) should be examined. This gram stain confirms the presence of gram negative bacilli. Note that only extracellular bacteria can be visualized on an unstained urine sediment. Intracellular bacteria can only be identified by cytologic examination of a Wright’s-stained smear of the urine sediment (the bottom panel demonstrates phagocytized bacteria within a neutrophil. The neutrophil’s nucleus is swollen as a storage-related artifact).

Interpretation: Bacteria may be insignificant contaminants or important pathogens. Distinguishing between these possibilities relies on clinical signs, the method of urine collection, the number and types of bacteria, the presence of leukocytes in urine, the length of urine storage, and any underlying disease in the animal.

Since urine in the bladder of normal animals is sterile, bacteria are not normally seen in urine, however this does depend on the method of collection. A few bacteria from the distal urethra and/or genital tract) may be seen in voided urine, however usually numbers are too low if a good mid-stream collection was obtained. Large numbers of bacteria, particularly of a uniform type or accompanied by pyuria (leukocytes), may still be relevant in a fresh voided urine sample (contaminating bacteria will proliferate with storage).
Bacteria are of clinical significance (regardless of numbers) if they are observed in urine collected by cystocentesis (this is a sterile procedure or a clean catheterization.
Bacteriuria of clinical significance, e.g., bacterial cystitis, is usually accompanied by increased numbers of white cells (pyuria). However, some animals with pyelonephritis or underlying immunosuppression (e.g. diabetes mellitus) may have clinically relevant bacteriuria without pyuria.
Cocci in urine

Upper panel: Low magnification view showing increased numbers of leukocytes and several struvite crystals (unstained wet prep). The leukocytes provide clear evidence of an inflammatory process; the background appears “busy”, but bacteria are not reliably identifiable at this magnification.

Middle panel: High magnification view of unstained wet prep showing leukocytes and clumps and chains of bacteria (arrows). Amorphous crystals or debris, however, can have a virtually identical appearance. Use of phase contrast microscopy can help in distinguishing between the two, but examination of a gram-stained drop of the urine sediment is most reliable.

Lower panel: High magnification view of a gram-stained slide. A neutrophil and gram positive cocci arranged in clusters and short chains are shown (arrows: some organisms have partially or completely decolorized). It can be concluded that the inflammatory process is caused or complicated by bacterial infection.


Parasitic Infection in America

There’s no use denying it, reports of parasitic infection have been appearing more frequently, and in places you might not expect. Some estimates place the infection rate at 90% in the US alone. Another estimates shows that as many as 50% of preschool children are infected with pinworm. With symptoms like; chronic Fatigue, irregular digestion, and irritated bowels, many people will go through they life never suspecting that a parasitic infection is causing their symptoms. This is a major risk to the health of Americans, one which is still under the radar.


Why would Americans worry about parasites? Parasites are found in every economic climate, though they are more prevalent poorer countries. Literally every facet of our survival deal with parasites, such as in our food and drinking water. There are 150,000 different kinds of parasites, and there are even fewer laboratories that do broad spectrum tests.  Parasites are often discovered in surgery, during operation on a failed organ. Not only does this shock surgeons, but I’m certain it shocks patients as well.

Are you at risk? You may not believe your in the risk group. Well, you’re wrong. Do you eat food? Drink Water? (which I’m going to guess you do)  you are at risk for parasitic infection!

Roundworm from pets:  Most cats and dogs have a roundworm infection. By sleeping with your pet, you greatly increase the chance of getting a parasitic infection from them!

Raw fish:  Many parasites can be found in raw fish. Among them, the Anisakis roundworm. This worm can cause fatal organ damage if left untreated. Due to the lack of FDA inspectors, only 10% of fish is inspected. Even still, you cannot tell if a fish is infected just by looking it at. Many can only be viewed on the microscopic level. There no way to tell if fish you’r eating is safe. Cooking a fish thoroughly can help insure any parasites within the fish are killed.

Tap water: There have been many cases of parasitic infections spreading from contaminated tap water. Many hundreds of people have died from this. Many more people continued on, never knowing the sometimes fatal damage being done to them.

Food: Many foods you eat come from other countries, and there is no way to insure your food is not contaminated without giving it a good wash with soap. However, even if you buy local, that doesn’t mean the food is parasite free.


Common parasites found in human intestines:

Pork Tape Worm (Taenia Solium): Infections come from eating raw or under cooked pork  Larvae grow in the body, causing cysts which can occur in the brain, leading to seizure and death.

Round Worms: According to “The WHO” one billion people are infected with round worms. Growing over 14″ long, and laying 200,000 eggs each day, these worms can cause intestinal blockages. Symptoms include rashes, stomach pain, asthma, eye pain and more, often depending on what part of the body houses the infection.

Pin Worms: An infection commonly found in children. The CDC states in some countries the infection rate is as high as 61%. Children can often get pin worms from playing dirt. Usually there are no symptoms but itching of the anus. Children are at high risk for parasitic infections.

Giardia Parasite: Giardia is the most common intestinal parasites in people. Contaminated water, food, or soil. Symptoms may include fatigue, diarrhea, stomach cramps,   nausea, and chills.

Whip Worms: Infecting more then 500 million people, this worm can lay over 10.000 eggs per day. The eggs are often found in dry goods such as grains, beans, and rice.  This worm causes blood loss that will lead to anemia.

Hookworms: A microscopic worm that sucks  your blood through your intestinal wall. Damage to the intestinal wall causes blood loss, leading to anemia. This worm has been known to get into the heart, causing a fatal infection. Animal feces often carry hookworms.  There are few symptoms that accompany this infection, and are often not experienced until there is damage to the heart or intestines.


The best parasite cleanse:  Dr. Omar Amin’s parasite cleanse; “Freedom, Cleanse, Restore” can be found here


Asymptomatic bacteriuria

Think you may have an infection?

Urine testing

What is asymptomatic bacteriuria?

Asymptomatic bacteriuria means you have bacteria in your urine but you have no symptoms of infection. If you are healthy, this condition is usually not a problem and not something that your healthcare provider needs to check for. However, it can cause complications if you are pregnant, have had a kidney transplant, or have certain other medical conditions. If you have one of these conditions, you will be checked for asymptomatic bacteriuria.

How does it occur?

Urine is normally sterile, which means that it contains no bacteria. A small number of bacteria may be found in the urine of many healthy people. This is usually considered to be harmless. However, a certain level of bacteria can mean that the bladder, urethra, or kidneys are infected.

Anything that blocks the flow of urine or prevents the bladder from emptying completely can cause bacteria to grow in the urine. For example, a stone or tumor might block the flow of urine. Prostate enlargement in men might also cause such a block.

This problem occurs more often in women than men because a woman’s urethra is shorter. (The urethra is the tube that empties urine from the bladder.) The short urethra makes it easier for bacteria from the anus or genital area to reach the bladder. This can happen during such activities as sex or wiping after using the toilet. Most infections of the urinary tract are caused this way. Bacteria can also enter the urine through the bloodstream, but this is rare.

What are the symptoms?

Asymptomatic bacteriuria has no symptoms.

How is it diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider may examine you. Your provider may ask you to provide 2 urine samples about a week apart. The urine samples will be tested for bacteria. You may also have some blood tests.

If you have bacteria in your urine more than once, you may have:

  • more blood tests
  • a special X-ray of the kidneys called an intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
  • an ultrasound scan.

The IVP and ultrasound scan can show problems in the urinary tract.

How is it treated?

If you are healthy, asymptomatic bacteriuria is usually not a problem and usually does not require treatment.

If you have a medical conditions in which asymptomatic bacteriuria can be a problem, you may be prescribed an antibiotic, especially if:

  • You are pregnant. (The infection could cause a low-birth-weight baby or it may cause you to go into labor too early.)
  • You are going to have tests or surgery on your bladder or other organs of the urinary tract.
  • You have a blockage of your urinary tract, such as a kidney stone.

If you are treated with an antibiotic, you may need to have your urine tested again after you have taken all of the medicine. Your provider may recommend additional follow-up tests of your urine to see if the problem comes back.

In some cases, regular urine testing rather than antibiotic treatment may be the best course. Your provider will determine what treatment is best for you.

How long will the effects last?

Asymptomatic bacteriuria usually clears up after treatment with antibiotics. However, it can come back.

If this problem is not treated, it could become a full-blown urinary tract infection. If the infection is not then treated with antibiotics, the kidneys could be damaged.

How can I take care of myself?

  • If you were prescribed an antibiotic, take all of it as prescribed, even if you have no symptoms. Do not take medicine left over from previous infections.
  • Drink plenty of water each day to cleanse the bladder and urinary tract.
  • Follow your healthcare provider’s recommendation for follow-up urine testing to check for recurrence.

What can I do to help prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria?

Women can take the following steps to help prevent a bladder infection from recurring:

  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Urinate regularly during the day. Empty your bladder completely each time.
  • Keep the vaginal area clean. Wipe from front to back after using the toilet.
  • Urinate before and after intercourse.
  • Wear cotton underwear, which allows better air circulation than nylon. Wear pantyhose that have a cotton crotch.
  • Avoid tight clothes in the genital area, such as control-top pantyhose and tight jeans. Do not wear a wet bathing suit for long periods of time.

If you have a history of recurrent urinary tract problems, your healthcare provider may prescribe antibiotics to be taken either daily or after every time you have sexual intercourse.


Tests and Treatment

Full GI Panel

Our Full GI Panel consists of our Comprehensive Stool Analysis Test and our Swab Culture Test.  The combination of these two test provdies full coverage screening of all intestinal pathogens and is recommended for anyone experiencing GI symptoms. Please see details of each individual test and their relevant publications below.

Comprehensive Stool Analysis Test

It provides a detailed analysis of all intestinal parasites (Protozoa, Trematodes, Tapeworms, Nematodes) from all 7 continents as well as an overview of other intestinal organisms including Candida, yeast, and other fungi.  See Dr. Amin’s article Understanding Parasites for informative background on parasitic infections and prevalence. Analysis of bio-indicators such as red and white blood cells, mucus, fatty acid crystals, starch granules, undigested tissue beneficial bacteria, epithelial cells, pollen, and charcot-leyden crystals is also included. Click on new publication for pictures and the signifigance of the bio-indicators.

Swab Culture Test

Swabs are taken for culturing and analysis of bacterial and fungal infections. Sensitivity and resistance results are also included. The swab can be used for culturing stool, skin, or any other body parts or secretions. This test is highly recommended for patients with GI symptoms who have had negative stool tests for parasites, as the symptoms for pathogenic bacteria are very similar to those of parasitic infections. See a new publication in the Journal of Bacteriology and Parasitology by Dr. Amin. View another publication re: IBS and gut flora in the New England Journal of Medicine which attributes up to 20% of IBS to gut flora. That is before parasite screening, after a negative parasite test that number goes up dramatically.

Urine Test

This test evaluates the presence of protozoan, worm (Shistosoma eggs), and bacteria. Anyone with abnormalities in the color and/or texture of urine especially after foreign travel should take this test.

Thin Blood Smear Test

This test is run for patients with history of having been bitten by bloodsucking insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, lice, Triatoma bugs, or fleas looking for parasites such as malaria, Babesia, Trypanosoma, Wuchereria, Brugia, Loa, or Onchocerca. Additionally, metabolic dysfunctions such as vitamin deficiencies, free radical damage, pancreatic and liver disorders detectable from blood cell abnormalities are reported. Directions for making a thin blood film are available.

Parasite ID Test

Any tissue samples, individual organisms, or material suspected to be of parasitic nature are identified.

Pinworm Test

This test is highly recommended for patients experiencing anal itching with negative test results and with no other plausable cause to explain the itching.  Pinworms do not normally present themselves in the normal fecal flow as they gravitate to the peri-anal region especially at night. This is the only way to accurately test for pinworm presence.

Water Analysis Test

This test is used to evaluate the presence of water borne parasites as well as other parasites, bacteria, and fungus. The most common microscopic human parasites (Protozoa) are transmitted via drinking water contaminated with fecal material from infected persons. Approximately 1/4th of US households carry parasites in their water. Approximately 1/5th of US households supplied by surface water treatment plants carry parasites such as Cryptosporidum and Giardia. This test also screens for the amoebas and Schistosomiasis.


All of the above tests can be ordered here ONLINE from a Parasitologist at Parasitology Center Inc.


Research Material

Following is a list of publications of public health importance that are available from this website.