All posts in Bacteria In Urine

Ask a Vet: Puppy’s urination problems could be behavioral or medical

Ask a Vet: Puppy’s urination problems could be behavioral or medical

My 10-week-old puppy is having urinary problems. She has to urinate very frequently and can’t seem to hold her urine when she is sleeping.

We have to differentiate out the possible cause of urinary problems in puppies as a behavioral or training issue versus a medical issue.

It is normal for young puppies to need to urinate frequently, perhaps every two or three hours, but less often when sleeping. It is always recommended to carry a pup straight outside on waking and to take her out after meals and every few hours otherwise.

If your house training is coming along and your puppy seems to know she should go outdoors but is also leaving puddles when she is asleep, that could be a potential physical problem. An X-ray of her bladder with radiopaque dye will show her kidneys, ureters connecting the kidneys to the bladder and urethra connecting the bladder to the outside.

There is a chance her urinary system didn’t develop normally and her urine is not being held in the bladder, but is going directly from the ureter to the urethra.

Regarding your concern about frequent urination: If it is more often than once every few hours, you should have her tested for a urinary tract infection. These are not very common in puppies, but could be the cause. A simple urinalysis and culture will help diagnose this.

Your veterinarian should also try to determine what the cause might be. In female pups, the vulva may sit deeply within folds of skin (recessed vulva) and cause retention of urine. Bacteria in the area can survive and multiply and work their way into the bladder through the opening of the urethra. Cleanliness is a good preventive tool in these cases.

If the proper antibiotic is prescribed and an infection clears up but returns, another internal problem could be the cause. In utero, urine from the puppy’s bladder leaves the body through a tube called the urachus via the umbilical cord into the mother’s bloodstream. Sometimes this tube doesn’t completely disappear after birth, and a small pocket remains where urine can collect outside of the main area of the bladder. Because of this, infections may be harder to clear up.

If you feel your house training is not the issue, please have your veterinarian rule out any physical causes of her urinary problems. House training will be frustrating for her and you if she wants to do what she is supposed to, but her body won’t cooperate.

Dr. Francine Rattner is a veterinarian at South Arundel Veterinary Hospital in Edgewater. Please send questions to or to


Urine Isn’t Free of Bacteria


FRIDAY, April 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) — Though it’s commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new study finds.

“Clinicians previously equated the presence of bacteria in urine to infections. The discovery of bacteria in the urine of healthy females provides an opportunity to advance our understanding of bladder health and disease,” study author Alan Wolfe, a professor in the department of microbiology and immunology at the Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, said in a university news release.

Instead of collecting urine samples from a woman’s urine stream, the researchers used catheters to collect urine directly from the bladder.

Testing this way revealed that bacteria were present in urine taken from the bladders of healthy women. The researchers also found that some of those bacteria may contribute to urinary leakage or a loss of bladder control (incontinence).

Additionally, the study found that some types of bacteria are more common in women with urinary incontinence.

“While traditional urine cultures have been the gold standard to identify urine disorders in the past, they do not detect most bacteria and have limited utility as a result. “They are not as comprehensive as the testing techniques used in this study,” Wolfe explained.

“Physicians and researchers must reassess their assumptions surrounding the cause of lower urinary tract disorders and consider new approaches to prevent and treat these debilitating health issues,” Wolfe said.

The study was published recently in the journal European Urology.

“If we can determine that select bacteria cause various lower urinary tract symptoms, we may be able to better identify those women at risk and more effectively treat them,” study co-author Dr. Linda Brubaker, dean and chief diversity officer at the Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, said in the news release.

More information

The U.S. Office on Women’s Health has more about urinary incontinence.

Copyright © 2015 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


Bacteria in Urine


The kidneys perform the important function of filtering the blood and this process leads to the formation of the waste product, i.e. urine. The important minerals and nutrients are retained by the kidneys in the blood, and the unwanted, waste materials are filtered out. Such water soluble waste then passes from the kidneys via the narrow pipes called ureters and get collected in the bladder in the form of urine. The urine is then eliminated from the body via a tube known as urethra.

Urine generally tends to have a sterile nature. However, bacteria may occasionally pass onto different areas of the urinary tract. This may result in multiplication of bacteria. When the growth of bacteria is found in a sample of urine, then the affected individual is diagnosed with a condition called bacteriuria. It is generally referred to as urinary tract infection, when more than 100,000 pathogenic bacteria per milliliter of urine, is detected in the sample of urine. It is important that such bacteria belong to a single species.

Bacteria in Urine – Test


Bacteria in Urine – Test

When a urine sample is detected with different types or species of bacteria, then it is possible that the sample is probably contaminated. In such a scenario, a new sample of urine would be needed for a fresh diagnosis to detect the presence of bacteria in urine.

When infected by bacteria in urine, the affected patients usually tend to visit a doctor with complaints of symptoms such as painful urination or the presence of burning sensations during urination. The doctor may then ask for a test of the urine that involves a urinalysis as well as a microbial culture of the sample of urine. The results obtained from the above tests aid in confirmation of bacteria in urine and also provide other necessary information.

Bacteria in urine may cause some symptoms or it may be asymptomatic. An individual who is affected by the presence of an excessive number of bacteria in the urinary tract but does not experience any symptoms is said to be affected by the asymptomatic form of bacteria in urine. This type of bacterial infection in urine is not serious in nature. However, any individual who has undergone a kidney transplant, or is diabetic; or if the said individual is a pregnant women, then that person needs to seek medical attention even for asymptomatic cases of bacteria in urine. Untreated cases of urinary tract infection and bacteria in urine can result in serious health complications.

Symptoms of bacteria in urine

  • Increased pressure during urination
  • Sensations of pain and burning during urination
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Putrid smelling urine
  • Bloody urine

Causes of bacteria in urine

Urine does not contain considerable number of microorganisms. In certain cases, bacteria may enter the urinary system and make its presence felt in the form of bacteria in urine and other visible symptoms. The different kinds of bacteria that can infect the urinary system and be detected in a urine sample are Enterococcus faecalis, Chlamydia, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Klebsiella pneumoniae

A few of the above mentioned bacteria are perennially present in the gastrointestinal tract and may pass to the urethra from the bowel. Hence, individuals who do not maintain good personal hygiene are at an increased vulnerability to developing bacteria in urine.

Women are generally more vulnerable to infections of the bladder as compared to men. This is because women have shorter urethral duct. Additionally, the urethral tube is really close to the vagina and also the anus. When women become pregnant there is a change in the way the urinary tract is positioned, which increases the risk to development of bacteria in urine. Hence, it is advisable for pregnant women to regularly visit their physicians and get a urinalysis as well as a urine culture done, so as to check for bacteria in urine.

Any infection of the urinary tract in children may result in the development of a medical condition known as vesicoureteral reflux which causes the urine to flow back to the ureters from the bladder. This may lead to the growth of bacteria in urine

Inflammation or enlargement of the prostate is generally the most likely cause of bladder infections in men, leading to bacteria in urine. Infections of the urinary tract is also possible when there is any blockage of the urine flow as a result of kidney stones, or when there in incomplete elimination of urine from the bladder.

Withholding urine for prolonged periods can also increase the risk to bacterial infections in urine. Additionally, prolonged use of bladder catheters increase the vulnerability to developing bacteria in urine

Treatment of bacteria in urine

  • Asymptomatic cases of bacteria in urine generally do not need any treatment, except for pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems. Such people need to consult a doctor for appropriate treatment.
  • Bacterial infections of the kidneys may be treated via antibiotics. Kidney stones and other diseases of the kidney may be treated by the doctor as per the individual cases and surgery may be one of the options
  • Infections of the urinary tract may be treated with different antibiotics.